In-depth Guide To Blockchain Scalability

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Have you ever wondered why blockchain technology has not yet reached its full potential? Although blockchain scalability can revolutionize the world, it cannot do so as there’s one major drawback – scalability. 

Blockchain scalability is one of the major features of blockchain that is extremely essential for the smooth working of the network. In this article, we will explore the challenges of blockchain scalability and some potential solutions for it.

scalability in blockchain

What is blockchain scalability?

To understand Blockchain scalability, one must first understand what the meaning of scalability is. When discussing scalability in the context of blockchain technology, the term refers to the transaction processing speed and the blockchain’s ability to handle growing number of transactions as the network expands. 

It must be noted that the efficiency of processing and verifying transactions while simultaneously preserving network security and reliability is one of the important factor to determine the scalability. Typically, it is measured in transactions per second (TPS). However, it is also influenced by the number of computations performed per second, taking into account the varying complexity and cost of transactions.

Overall, scalability points to how well a network can handle increasing data; or an increasing number of transactions. In fact, blockchain scalability is an essential consideration that developers and users think about as the number of users and transactions on the network increases along with the demand for processing power and network resources.

When a certain network is not capable of handling the transaction demand or requirements, it will result in slow transaction processing times, high fees, and poor user experience. To address scalability challenges, blockchain developers are exploring solutions such as sharding, off-chain transactions, and alternative consensus mechanisms. 

These solutions aim to increase blockchain networks’ transaction throughput and capacity while maintaining the security and decentralization that make blockchain technology so valuable.

How scalability plays a vital role in blockchain?

Blockchain scalability is considered to be both a hindrance and a holy grail in the crypto sector. It is an essential aspect that determines the future of a blockchain. In fact, a good scalable blockchain can handle the ‘n’ number of blockchain use cases without any performance degeneration. However, if one observes decreased performance, it simply means that the blockchain is not scalable.

What makes a blockchain scalable?

A scalable blockchain is the one with a high TPS; which can be achieved when the nodes involved in the blockchain agree upon a block as per the specified guidelines. Some factors which can impact blockchain scalability are networking, cost and capacity, finality, throughput, and confirmation time. Thus, one can say a blockchain network is scalable when it has a good TPS.

What are the advantages of a scalable blockchain?

By now, it is clear that employing blockchain technology is highly beneficial for organizations and people who implement it. Here are some of the advantages that one can have by employing a scalable blockchain:

Highly capable platform

A scalable blockchain enhances the efficiency of the normal blockchain and improves its performance to a great extent which can be seen in its finality, throughout, confirmation time, and so on. In short, a blockchain with good scalability can help perform innumerable tasks or transactions easily.

Improved growth

The higher the blockchain scalability, the higher the chances of catering to its vast community. In short, a scalable blockchain will not give a diminished performance with the increase in the number of use cases. Moreover, one can observe that it keeps up its growth as the tasks increase.


A blockchain that is scalable ensures that it is resistant to fraudulent activities due to its reliance on the Proof-of-Work consensus algorithm. If any previous transaction is modified, the block that contains it will no longer be valid. Additionally, rewriting a transaction becomes increasingly costly as more blocks are built on top of it. 


To prevent unauthorized modifications or deletions, scalable blockchains employ techniques such as shared replication, routine database backups, cryptographic signatures for transactions, blocks, and votes, and the prohibition of undoing changes.


By implementing scalable blockchain, any company can get complete control over the data and other processes easily. In fact, all tasks can be done more efficiently and faster. Furthermore, sharing any details or information between customers, employees, and businesses will be effortless.

Security and transparency

Scalable blockchain carries less risk and is more secure and transparent than others. This type of blockchain prohibits unauthorized transactions and time stamps every authentic (or confirmed) transaction. This helps other nodes to confirm and follow the previous transactions easily.

Overall, a blockchain’s ability to scale helps users experience an efficient and smooth transaction without any hassles. However, with so many advantages, one can also find some flaws associated with this aspect as well.  Discover the role of blockchain and NFT in banking.

The major part of the issue comes from the fact that the blockchain requires all participants to agree on the validity of transactions. Apart from this, other issues will be discussed in the below sections. But first, let us look at the types of blockchain scalability.

blockchain scalability problem

Blockchain scalability types

Blockchain scalability solutions can be categorized into the following methods to help address the scalability issues in the blockchain. 

Layer 1 scalability

Also known as first-layer solutions or on-chain scaling solutions, this approach involves optimizing the blockchain protocol itself to increase its transaction throughput. This can include changes to the consensus mechanism, block size, or transaction processing time. Examples of this type of scalability solution includes:

  • Sharding 
  • Segregated Witness (SEGWIT)
  • Hard forks

Layer 2 scalability

This approach involves building additional layers on top of the blockchain to process transactions off-chain and periodically settling them on-chain. Examples of Layer 2 solutions include:

  • State channels
  • Sidechains
  • Plasma
  • Lightning Network

Scalable consensus mechanisms

This approach helps streamline consensus so that the algorithms offer excellent throughput and scalability. Some of the major examples of this method include:

  • Delegated Proof-of-Stake
  • Proof-of-Authority
  • Byzantine Fault Tolerance
  • Scalable distributed ledgers

Blockchain scalability problems 

Blockchain scalability problems basically refer to the challenges in the blockchain network. It arises when a blockchain network is unable to process a sufficient number of transactions to meet the growing demands of its users. 

One can see that these issues occur when there is an increase in the number of nodes and transactions. Well-known blockchains, such as Ethereum and Bitcoin, are some of those networks that experience this problem, as every node in this network must perform authentication for each transaction. 

The four important issues affecting scalability in blockchain include limitations, transaction fees, block size, and response time. However, there are other issues too which can impact the blockchain. We will discuss some of these issues one by one:

Transaction Fees

The demand for blockchain networks adds more strain on the required mining power, resulting in computational complexities. Thus, people must pay certain fees in order to validate their transactions. However, with growing popularity, the fees to be paid are getting increased in addition to a long waiting period for transaction processing. 

Block size

Another issue affecting scalability is the size of the block, which increases with the growing number of transactions. Additionally, the increased transactions results in time-intensive executions. All these results in an increased block size that affects the blockchain scalability negatively.

Network Congestion

When the demand for transactions exceeds the capacity of the blockchain network, transactions can become backlogged, leading to long confirmation times and higher transaction fees. This congestion can also cause network performance issues, which can impact user experience.

Limited Transaction Throughput

Most blockchain networks’ current design limits the number of transactions that can be processed within a given timeframe. This is because each block can only contain a limited number of transactions. The time to validate each transaction before adding it to the blockchain also contributes to the overall transaction throughput. Thus, a blockchain can have issues with the number of transactions based on the design.

Storage Requirements

As the blockchain grows, storage requirements also increase, making it difficult for nodes with limited storage capacity to participate in the network.


In some cases, the need to process a large number of transactions can lead to centralization, as larger nodes with more processing power are favored over smaller nodes. This can lead to a loss of decentralization and an increased risk of attacks.

Energy Consumption

Proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanisms, which are used by many blockchain networks, require a significant amount of energy to operate. This can lead to potential environmental concerns.

In addition to the scalability issues, there’s one more concern that has a major impact on the blockchain network – blockchain trilemma.

Blockchain Trilemma

It refers to the idea that it is difficult to simultaneously achieve three key features of a blockchain system: decentralization, security, and scalability. 

The trilemma issue suggests that it is pretty challenging to achieve all three of these features at the same time in a blockchain. For instance, a highly decentralized blockchain may sacrifice some degree of scalability since each node on the network must verify and process every transaction. On the other hand, a more centralized blockchain may be able to process more transactions quickly but may be less secure due to the potential for a single point of failure.

Similarly, a highly scalable blockchain may compromise with the features; thus, making it impossible for the blockchain to have all three features at once.

To address the Blockchain Trilemma and other issues mentioned above, researchers and developers are exploring various solutions, such as sharding, state channels, and layer-two protocols, to increase scalability without sacrificing decentralization or security, which will be discussed in the next section.

blockchain scalability solution

Blockchain scalability solutions

In the above section, we have discussed the types of blockchain scalability, and here we will explore each of those solutions in detail. The blockchain scalability solutions presented here will address the several challenges faced by the network.

Layer 1 solutions

This is the most common blockchain scalability solution, which is also known as the first layer or on-chain solution. It is used to modify the core architecture of the blockchain to improve some of its attributes, such as verification time, block size, performance, and so on. The best examples of these solutions include: 


Sharding involves breaking the blockchain network into smaller partitions or “shards,” each of which can process a subset of transactions. This can increase the overall transaction throughput of the network by allowing multiple transactions to be processed simultaneously.

Segregated Witness or SEGWIT:

It is a protocol upgrade that targets the data storage mechanism in the Bitcoin blockchain network. Its primary objective is to transform the way transaction data is structured by removing signature data associated with each transaction. By doing so, the network becomes efficient and achieves a improved transaction capacity and storage space. This is because, with the elimination of digital signatures, more space is freed up for the inclusion of new transactions.

Hard forks

This solution structurally modifies the network property of the blockchain. For instance, hard forking may increase the size of the block or reduce the time taken to create one. 

Layer 2 solutions

Second layer solutions involve building additional layers on top of the main blockchain network to increase its capacity. These layers can include protocols such as Lightning Network, which enables instant and low-cost transactions for Bitcoin users. Here are some well-known examples of layer two solutions:


This approach involves creating separate, interoperable blockchains with the main blockchain. This can increase transaction throughput by offloading certain types of transactions to the sidechain.

State channels

This approach involves various strategies that allow two-way interactions between blockchain networks and off-chain transaction channels. This can improve the capacity and speed of the blockchain network to a great extent. 

Lightning Network

This method makes use of smart contract functionality with the help of off-chain channels. In other words, it does not operate through the mainchain, reducing a load of transactions away from it. Furthermore, off-chain transactions involve moving some transactions off the main blockchain network and processing them through secondary channels. This can help reduce network congestion and increase transaction speed, as the secondary channels can process transactions more quickly than the main blockchain.


This solution is centered around the usage of child chains that come from a parent blockchain where each of the child chains operates as a distinct blockchain. The technique is employed when a specific transaction has to be processed.

Nested blockchain

At its core, this solution operates as a decentralized network infrastructure that utilizes the primary blockchain to establish parameters for a wider blockchain network. Moreover, it guarantees the execution of transactions across a network of interconnected secondary chains.

Consensus Mechanisms

Alternative consensus mechanisms such as proof-of-stake (PoS) and delegated proof-of-stake (dPoS) require significantly less energy than proof-of-work (PoW) and can process transactions more quickly, leading to improved scalability.

Proof of Authority

This is a consensus method that is based on a reputation where only selected nodes have the power to authenticate the transactions on the network with this technique. 

Byzantine Fault Tolerance or BFT

This consensus technique addresses the Byzantine Generals Problem, which is a distributed system characteristic that implies the need for continuous consensus despite various adversarial network participants.


Interoperability solutions aim to connect different blockchain networks, allowing for a seamless exchange of value and data. This can help increase the overall capacity of the blockchain ecosystem by allowing different networks to work together.

Protocol Upgrades

Some blockchain networks are exploring protocol upgrades to improve their scalability. For example, Ethereum is planning to transition from a PoW to a PoS consensus mechanism, which is expected to increase its transaction throughput and reduce energy consumption.

Hybrid solutions

Many blockchain scalability solutions involve a combination of the above approaches. For example, a blockchain might use sharding and Layer 2 solutions to increase transaction throughput while also optimizing its protocol for better performance. Blockchain scalability solutions constantly evolve as developers work to improve the technology’s capacity and performance.


Today blockchain technology is one of the evolving technologies that is in great demand in various sectors across the world. In fact, blockchain technology is advancing rapidly and is being integrated into various sectors, such as real estate, banking, healthcare sectors, and so on. However, with growing demand, one can also witness increasing problems that must be addressed. Fortunately, developers and other experts have been 

The demand for blockchain technology and its ever-increasing use cases have resulted in scalability problems that must be addressed to have efficient performance. The solutions proposed in this article are effective ways to counter the blockchain scalability problem.

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